Mcmahon abstract the propagation of solitary waves in a bragg grating formed by an array of thin nanostructured dielectric. The optical equivalent pulse has a 1015 times higher carrier frequency than shown here. In the absence of free charge and current densities the maxwell equations are. Temporal pulse dynamics in dispersive, attenuative media springer series in optical sciences on. Propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in nonlinear media. The sommerfeld precursor in photonic crystals in this chapter1, we calculate the sommerfeld precursor of an electromagnetic pulse that has been transmitted through a strati. This lesson describes the properties of electromagnetic and electro optical radiation and how their propagation is affected by the atmosphere and weather. Simulation of electromagnetic pulse propagation in threedimensional finitedifference timedomain fdtd method using parallel processing techniques w. Oughstun in two volumes, this book presents a detailed, systematic treatment of electromagnetics with application to the propagation of transient electromagnetic fields including ultrawideband signals and ultrashort pulses. We show by numerical techniques that brillouins approximations for the saddlepoint locations break down in certain spacetime regions.
Simulation of phononpolariton generation and propagation. The polariton wavelength range is dictated by the optical pulse spot size. A freespace broadband terahertz pulse is coupled into a propagating mode along the shaft of an optical antenna acting as an apertureless near. Introduction optical phenomena in the media with the linear refractive index, which periodically changes along the propagation direction of an electromagnetic wave, have attracted attention of researchers for the last ofty years. Any reader interested in designing or actively working with optical devices must have a firm grasp of the principles of lightwave propagation. Propagation of electromagnetic energy and momentum through an. The photonic crystal slabs have frequency dispersion and absorption. The resulting movie is a map of the beam profile in the transverse direction i. Simulation of electromagnetic and optical wave propagation in, e. Transmission and attenuation of electromagnetic pulses the purpose of this experiment is to acquaint you with some of the principles involved in the manipulation of electrical pulses.
The electromagnetic brillouin precursor in onedimensional. The relevant studies are motivated by their application to modern optical communication systems. To rotate the wave model, click and drag anywhere within the window. However, because of the scaleinvariance of classical wave equations,such studies need not be performed at optical frequencies.
Atmospheric variables that affect em propagation include temperature, moisture, pressure, and composition. The pulse broadening and reduction in peak power can be seen with propagation. Wthe study of pulse propagation can have three distinct approaches. Chen1, 1microelectronics research center, the university of texas at austin, 10100 burnet road bldg 160 mer, austin. Department of electrical and computer engineering, florida international university, miami, usa. Propagation modes in fiber light, while propagating in the fiber, can be seen sa an electromagnetic phenomenon, and the whole propagating mechanism, which can be described by the electromagnetic optical fields associated to it, is governed by maxwell equations 1. This approach permits the accurate propagation of fullvectorial fields because it does not need approximations accompanied by a secondorder derivative with respect to the propagating direction. U ltrawideband electromagnetic pulse propagation in a causally dispersive dielectric is governed by the interrelated effects of phase and attenuation dispersion which alter the pulse in a. These variables control processes including refraction, absorption, and scattering. An electromagnetic metamaterial affects electromagnetic waves that impinge on or interact with its structural features, which are smaller than the wavelength. Visible light is a commonly studied form of electromagnetic radiation, and exhibits oscillating electric and magnetic fields whose amplitudes and directions are represented by. All plots are generated from the analytical form of the fd pulse, eqs.
To behave as a homogeneous material accurately described by an effective refractive index, its features must be much smaller than the wavelength. Electromagnetic pulse prepping for tomorrow book 1 emp. Parameters such as the energy propagation characteristics and beamwidth. Wave propagation in a random medium download ebook pdf. Pulse propagation in optical fiber using wavelets 273 effect of power in pulse propagation in figures 3 and 4, the pulse evolution is shown for different values of input power. Electromagnetics and applications mit opencourseware. Optical pulse propagation with minimal approximations. Ultrashort tiltedpulsefront pulses and nonparaxial tilted.
Causes of multipath include atmospheric ducting, ionospheric reflection and refraction, and reflection from water bodies and terrestrial objects such as mountains and buildings multipath propagation causes multipath. Orfanidis this text provides a broad and applicationsoriented introduction to electromagnetic waves and antennas. With the method of steepest descent, they calculated that during the propagation of optical electromagnetic pulses in dielectric, nonmagnetic lorentz media with a single electron resonance, two different electromagnetic precursors. Electromagnetic formalism of the propagation and amplification of. Equation 4 reveals that optical measurements are, in fact, measurements of. Electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation kurt e. This book gives a systematic, rigorous treatment of timedomain electromagnetics with application to the propagation of transient electromagnetic fields in homogeneous, isotropic media, featuring asymptotic analysis of pulse propagation in dielectric, conducting, and semiconducting materials. In radio communication, multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results in radio signals reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths. Figure 3 corresponds to the peak power of 1 mw while figure 4 is at 6 mw power. Study of the optical properties of dielectric spheres has received new interest with improvements in optical instrumentation and the emergency of new applications for highq resonators. Frequency dependent propagation often, the propagation parameters speed, impedance depend on frequency. Analytic approximations that describe the correct saddlepoint behavior are derived and applied to obtain improved asymptotic expressions. Spectral representations in temporally dispersive media kurt e. The second edition contains new material on the effects of spatial dispersion on precursor formation, and pulse transmission into a dispersive half space and into multilayered media.
Propagation of electromagnetic pulses in a linear dispersive medium with. Click download or read online button to principlesofoptics electromagnetic theoryof propagation interferenceanddiffractionoflight book pdf for free now. Metamaterials and solitons in optical fibers, nonlinear phenomena, and porous media primarily a textbook for graduate courses in electrical engineering, electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation, and scattering is also ideal for graduate students in bioengineering, geophysics, ocean engineering, and geophysical remote sensing. Pdf propagation of electromagnetic pulses researchgate. Examples are i propagation through the ionosphere plasma i propagation in optical bres and waveguides i propagation in lossy media i propagation in engineered composite materials in this lecture, we give tools to analyze and characterize. Electromagnetic wave propagation florida state university.
Electrical engineering wave propagation and scattering in random media a volume in the ieeeoup series on electromagnetic wave theory donald g. Propagation equations for optical pulses are needed to assist in describing applications in ever more extreme situations including those in metamaterials with linear and nonlinear magnetic. Osa propagation of electromagnetic pulses in a linear. Transmission and attenuation of electromagnetic pulses. University of groningen electromagnetic pulse propagation.
Navotny physicaltechnical institute of the uzbek academy of sciences, 2b, g. Propagation of an optical pulse of several femtoseconds duration through a. Electromagnetic pulse prepping for tomorrow book 1. Outline 1 introduction 2 propagation as a linear lter 3 causality and various velocities 4 transients and steady state 5 group velocity as peak velocity. We report a direct observation of the electromagnetic wave propagation on optical antennas. Pdf electromagnetic waves and antennas by sophocles j. Simple theory of electromagnetic energy and momentum propagation the present section is devoted to a derivation of some basic results for electromagnetic. Spectral representations in temporally dispersive media springer series in optical sciences v. Electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation presents a systematic treatment of the radiation and propagation of transient electromagnetic and optical wave fields such as those used in ultrawideband radar and communications systems as well as in ultrashort pulsed optics through causal, locally linear media which exhibit both temporal. Optical pulse propagation via whispering gallery modes in. Early in this century, rayleigh showed that waves could propagate close to the wall of a spherical cavity with very little loss as long as the wavelength was small compared to the cavity circumference. Oughstun and others published electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation 1. Electromagnetic wave propagation into fresh water shan jiang, stavros georgakopoulos. Oughstun and others published electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation 2 find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate.
Electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation volume 1. Physical optics lecture notes pdf 44p download book. Gupta department of electrical, electronic and computer engineering at napier university, edinburgh, uk abstract the authors have applied the 3d fdtd technique to simulate the. Download principlesofoptics electromagnetic theoryof propagation interferenceanddiffractionoflight ebook pdf or read online books in pdf, epub, and mobi format. We discuss propagation of an ultimately short singlecycle pulse of an electromagnetic field in a medium whose dispersion and nonlinear properties can be described by the cubicquintic duffing. Ec 565 is an advanced course dealing with the propagation of electromagnetic em waves in different types of optical media. Coherent propagation of an optical pulse in a bragg plasmon. Analytic approximations that describe the correct saddlepoint behavior are derived and applied to obtain improved asymptotic. Introduction to electromagnetic and electrooptical. Gaussian pulse with the carrier frequency illustrated. High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic. You will study reflections, measure the effects of termination resistances, and measure pulse propagation velocities for coaxial cables. High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection cheyun lin,1,3 alan x.
Electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation 2 request pdf. Physical optics lecture notes pdf 44p this note covers the following topics. Individual chapters are available below in pdf in 2up format. Fundamentals of optical waveguides is an essential resource for any researcher, professional or student involved in optics and communications engineering. Propagation filter, front velocity and causality, exact medium response examples, transient and steadystate behavior, pulse propagation and group velocity, group velocity dispersion and pulse spreading, propagation and chirping, dispersion compensation, slow, fast, and negative group velocities, chirp radar and pulse compression. Under certain conditions, ultrashort pulse dynamics in a linear dispersive medium with absorption result in the appearance of optical precursors that dominate the pulse evolution for large propagation distances as the peak amplitude in the initial pulse spectrum decays exponentially. Jul 16, 2007 this script simulates the propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in time and 2 spatial dimensions.
Propagation of a gaussian electromagnetic pulse and laser. The numerical method combines a split step beam propagation method with the cranknicholson method. The entire book is freely available in pdf 2up format, and in pdf 1up format. Coherent optical pulse dynamics in nanocomposite plasmonic bragg gratings i. Pulse propagation in optical fibers using the moment method. Electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation presents a systematic treatment of the radiation and propagation of transient electromagnetic and optical wave fields such as those used in ultrawideband radar and communications systems as well as in ultrashort pulsed optics through causal, locally linear media which exhibit both temporal dispersion and absorption. May 18, 2011 starting from the uniform disk current model, an analytical solution for the electromagnetic pulse axial energy radiation is derived and a physical meaning then given to the axial energy propagation characteristics of a unit antenna. Caianiello and istituto nazionale di fisica della materia infm. Propagation of electromagnetic waves generated by modulated.
It uses maxwells equations as a starting point and retains the vector nature of the electromagnetic field throughout the semester. The treatment was primarily for acoustic waves, modeling the whispering gallery effect, but he pointed out that electromagnetic waves should behave similarly. Download electromagnetic waves and antennas by sophocles j. Oughstun in two volumes, this book presents a detailed, systematic treatment of electromagnetics with application to the propagation of transient electromagnetic fields including ultrawideband signals and ultrashort pulses in dispersive absorptive media. The propagation properties of the transverse magnetic pulse are identical to the te case presented here, by replacing electric magnetic with magnetic electric. From this solution, a pointsource approximation model in the time domain is introduced. Volume 2 covers temporal pulse dynamics in dispersive attenuative media, with asymptotic analysis at the forefront. Lithium niobate linbo waveguides for electromagnetic. We have developed and implemented a numerical technique for the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a fivelevel reverse saturable absorber medium, which includes the nonlinear kerr effect and dispersion. Electromagnetic wave propagation java tutorial olympus. Spatial propagation is the usual choice in nonlin ear optics and optical pulse propagation, where flelds et, x, y, ht, x, y are stepped forward in a chosen spa tial direction z. The pulse effex, book 1 electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation 1. This tutorial explores propagation of a virtual electromagnetic wave and considers the orientation of the magnetic and electric field vectors. Effects of pmd on pulse propagation polarization mode dispersion pmd can cause serious problems in high bitrate transmissions.
Uniform asymptotic description of electromagnetic pulse. The modern asymptotic theory used here relies on olvers saddlepoint method stud. Another interesting effect of photonic crystals is that the group velocity of an electromagnetic pulse can be reduced considerably 92,93 when the pulse is predominantly composed of frequencies that lie close to the edge of the band gap 111. Osa electromagneticfield propagation based on maxwells. An errata file updated october 19, 2019 is also available here. The uniform asymptotic description of electromagnetic pulse propagation in a singleresonance lorentz medium is presented.
Coherent optical pulse dynamics in nanocomposite plasmonic. Electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation volume 2. Current interest in these areas is driven by the growth in wireless and fiberoptic communications, information technology, and materials science. Plane electromagnetic waves and wave p ropagation 7.
Electromagnetic waves can be generated by a variety of methods, such as a discharging spark or by an oscillating molecular dipole. Electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation springerlink. However, another factor which condition pulse propagation is the development of nonlinear effects, most notably, spm 9. Spectral representations in temporally dispersive media. Coherent propagation of an optical pulse in a bragg. In this lesson, the pmd emulator component is used to demonstrate the distortions in the transmitted signal, caused by first and second order pmd effects. Drude model of conductivity rocardpowles extension optical beam field propagation propagation in attenuative media propagation in dispersive media pulsed electromagnetic field propagation superliminal pulse propagation timedomain electromagnetics timedomain optics ultrashort pulses asymptotic methods in optics. Amplification of ultrashort pulses almost always requires the technique of chirped pulse. Full text of optical pulse propagation with minimal. Ultrashort optical pulse propagation in a dispersive medium osa. Group velocity mismatch at ultrashort electromagnetic pulse. With a data rate of 40gbits, the pulses are spaced by 25ps. Lithium niobate linbo3 waveguides for electromagnetic pulse emp sensing. On the propagation of electromagnetic pulses with low.
This leads to the effect of dispersive spreading of an optical pulse. Phononpolaritons generated through isrs by a 50 fs optical pulse with spot size a 50 m and b 10 m, and detected after having propagated 1. Nonlinear guided waves, dynamics of nonlinear optical systems, ber optics pacs. Lectures and problem sets cover the following topics. Depending on the sign of the material dispersion, the local electromagnetic energy flow is saddle or spiral about the stov. Such pulses have a broadband optical spectrum, and can be created by modelocked oscillators. The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint you with some of the principles involved in the manipulation of electrical pulses. Ultrashort optical pulse propagation in a dispersive medium. The classical theory of sommerfeld and brillouin of pulse propagation in a lorentz medium is reexamined. Buy electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation 2. The relationship between both the mathematical and physical interpretation of classical electromagnetic field theory with the special theory of relativity is emphasized throughout the volume. We determine the spatial extent of this guided mode and its velocity.
A new analysis of electromagneticfield propagation is presented whereby the fieldpropagating step operators are derived from a direct method for solving maxwells equations. Stovs are a fundamental element of the nonlinear collapse and subsequent propagation of short optical pulses in material media, and conserve topological charge. The propagation of wideband electromagnetic pulses in a causal, temporally dispersive dielectric has been studied since the beginning of the 19th century 1 3. Introduction optical phenomena in the media with the linear refractive index, which periodically changes along the propagation direction of an electromagnetic wave, have attracted attention of researchers. Electromagnetic waves and antennas rutgers university. Download pdf principlesofopticselectromagnetictheory. Electromagnetic and optical pulse propagation 2 springerlink. Propagation of a gaussian electromagnetic pulse and laser acceleration relatore. It has recently been shown that optical pulses propagating in whispering gallery modes can be treated analogously to pulses in a fiber optic waveguide. Focused electromagnetic doughnut pulses and their interaction. The rigorous description of the signal velocity of a pulse in a dispersive material is presented in connection with the question of superluminal pulse propagation.419 62 1322 843 1574 964 1383 794 969 39 656 1281 1336 1106 1374 1108 521 953 1268 1106 828 1447 426 314 829 60 947